In short, for the poorer peasants multi- or pluriactivity has been little more than a means for survival leading to a process of depeasantization, deagrarianization, semi-proletarianization or even proletarianization. Hence their increasing exploitation as they have become mainly providers of cheap and flexible labour for capitalism and have to a large extent lost their capacity to produce cheap food. Only for the already well endowed peasant farmers has diversification become a strategy of capital accumulation and improved well-being (Kay, 2008: 935).
— Kay, C. (2008). Reflections on Latin American rural studies in the neoliberal globalization period: a new rurality? Development and Change 39(6), 915-943.
É in questo senso precisamente che io non dubito di proclamare l’êra antropozoica. La creazione dell’uomo è l’introduzione de un elemento nuovo nella natura, di una forza affatto sconosciuta ai mondi antichi. E si badi bene che io parlo dei mondi fisici, poichè la geologia è la storia del pianeta, non già del mondo intellettuale e morale. Ma il nuovo essere, insediato sul vecchio pianeta, il nuovo essere che, non solo come gli antichi abitatori del globo, riunisce il mondo inorganico all’organico, ma, con connubio affatto nuovo e misterioso, la fisica natura sposa al principio intellettuale e morale; questa creatura veramente nuova in sè stessa, è anche pel mondo fisico un nuovo elemento: è una nuova forza tellurica, che, per la sua potenza e universalità, non sviene in faccia alle maggiori forze del globo (Stoppani, 1873: 732).
Stoppani, A. (1873). Corso di geologia, Volume II. Milano: G. Bernardoni e G. Brigola.
I suggest that a historical political ecology can be characterized as a field-informed interpretation of society-nature relations in the past (e.g., material, ideological, legal, spiritual), how and why those relations have changed (or not changed) over time and space, and the significance of those interpretations for improving social justice and nature conservation today (Offen, 2004: 21).
— Offen, K. H. (2004). Historical political ecology: an introduction. Historical Geography 32, 19-42.
Los valores entonces no son más que un conjunto de puntos de vista altamente movedizo. No son iguales a las estrellas fijas (como alguna vez lo fueron las ideas) sino más bien a los globos cuyo forro se conserva para, en dado caso, especialmente en las fiestas, inflarlos (Luhmann, 2006: 266).
— Luhmann, N. (2006). La sociedad de la sociedad. Editorial Herder: México.
Islands and archipelagos are powerful, recurring, and vexing to the spatial imaginary: highly unique, idiosyncratic, disparate and yet revealing, offering spatial form, pattern, and logics that are everywhere reproduced (Mountz, 2015: 638).
— Mountz, A. (2015). Political geography II: islands and archipelagos. Progress in Human Geography 39(5), 636-646.
El marco dominante del enfoque humano-vida salvaje es extrañamente familiar. Evoca a narrativas coloniales que presentaban a las personas locales como incapaces de gobernarse a sí mismas, necesitando intervención y regulación externas (White, 2016: 83).
— White, S. C. (2016). “¿Por dónde va a pasar el elefante? Va a pasar por la aldea”. Bienestar humano, desarrollo y las políticas de la naturaleza en Chiawa, Zambia. In: Di Giminiani, P., Aedo, Á. & Loera, J. Ecopolíticas globales: medio ambiente, bienestar y poder, 81-105. Santiago de Chile: Hueders.
Distant places are also remote in time, lying either in the remote past or future. In non-Western societies, distant places are located in the mythical past rather than future, but since time tends to be perceived as cyclical remote past and remote future converge. In Western society, a distant place can suggest the idea of a distant past: when explorers seek the source of the Nile or the heart of a continent they appear to be moving back in time (Tuan, 1979: 390).
— Tuan, Y.-F. (1979). Space and place: humanistic perspective. In: Gale, S. & Olsson, G. (Eds.). Philosophy in geography, 387-427. Dordrecth: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Islandness is a sense that is absorbed into the bones of islanders through the obstinate and tenacious hold that island communities exert on their native-born as well as on their converts, who experience it as an instantaneous recognition. Islandness thus is an important metacultural phenomenon that helps maintain island communities in spite of daunting economic pressures to abandon them (Conkling, 2007: 200).
— Conkling, P. (2007). On islanders and islandness. The Geographical Review 97(2), 191-201.
Regional development is a complex, global process, consisting of a series of changes aimed at achieving rich personalities within prosperous and democratic society. These changes are observed in the rises of per capita production, educational level and professional and moral qualities of the people, in the people’s political activity, in the use of their standards of living, in widespread cultural life, and in preserving the values of man’s environment. […]
However, not all the changes that occur in a region can be qualified as ‘development’. Only the changes that are accepted by the people concerned as concordant with directional trends can be called ‘development’. By ‘directional trends’ I refer to the conditions under which individual and social aims may be achieved within the scheme of a country’s development policy (Pióro, 1979: 195-196).
— Pióro, Z. (1979). The sociological concept of regional development. In: Kuklinski, A., Kultalahti, O. & Koskiaho, B. Regional dynamics of socioeconomic change, 195-202. Tampere: Finnpublishers.
If property can emancipate and empower, it tends to do so very selectively and unevenly. The net effect of expanding forms of property and expanding enforcement of property rights, as opposed to what property rights can theoretically (and in some cases actually do) produce, is that people become dispossessed and without access to various things enabling their subsistence (Andreasson, 2006: 18).
— Andreasson, S. (2006). Stand and deliver: private property and the politics of Global dispossession. Political Studies 54, 3-22.