In short, for the poorer peasants multi- or pluriactivity has been little more than a means for survival leading to a process of depeasantization, deagrarianization, semi-proletarianization or even proletarianization. Hence their increasing exploitation as they have become mainly providers of cheap and flexible labour for capitalism and have to a large extent lost their capacity to produce cheap food. Only for the already well endowed peasant farmers has diversification become a strategy of capital accumulation and improved well-being (Kay, 2008: 935).
— Kay, C. (2008). Reflections on Latin American rural studies in the neoliberal globalization period: a new rurality? Development and Change 39(6), 915-943.
¿Son nuevas las ruralidades de Chiloé? Transformaciones territoriales y la “modernización” de los modos de vida rurales
Jonathan Barton, Álvaro Román, Alejandro Salazar & Bernardita McPhee.
The debate on new rurality, particularly in more developed countries, has addressed changes in agricultural production patterns and proceses of diversifcation. While in some areas there has been a shift to agribusiness, in others there has been a movement towards more diversification of activities in rural contexts. These changes have implied transformations in residential typologies (and even rural gentrification), new productive activities (e.g. tourism and energy) and improvements in social, road and telecommunications infrastructures. The dominant argument poses that traditional rurality, based on agriculture, does not explain well the diversity of contemporary rural livelihoods and associated socio-spatial changes. These “new ruralities” mark a paradigm shift in defining rural areas and their potentialities (Kay, 2008; PNUD, 2008). However, there is a counter-argument that rurality was always diverse given their local contexts and historical dimensions of subsistence and exchange. It is likely that interpretations of these changes in different rural contexts are divergent. However it is important to understand contemporary processes and how they are shaping new rural livelihoods that in turn shape rural quality of life and landscape transformations.
Barton, J., Román, Á., Salazar, A. & McPhee, B. (2013). ¿Son nuevas las ruralidades de Chiloé? Transformaciones territoriales y la “modernización” de los modos de vida rurales. Anales de la Sociedad Chilena de Ciencias Geográficas 2012, 197-203.
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