El marco dominante del enfoque humano-vida salvaje es extrañamente familiar. Evoca a narrativas coloniales que presentaban a las personas locales como incapaces de gobernarse a sí mismas, necesitando intervención y regulación externas (White, 2016: 83).

— White, S. C. (2016). “¿Por dónde va a pasar el elefante? Va a pasar por la aldea”. Bienestar humano, desarrollo y las políticas de la naturaleza en Chiawa, Zambia. In: Di Giminiani, P., Aedo, Á. & Loera, J. Ecopolíticas globales: medio ambiente, bienestar y poder, 81-105. Santiago de Chile: Hueders.



Distant places are also remote in time, lying either in the remote past or future. In non-Western societies, distant places are located in the mythical past rather than future, but since time tends to be perceived as cyclical remote past and remote future converge. In Western society, a distant place can suggest the idea of a distant past: when explorers seek the source of the Nile or the heart of a continent they appear to be moving back in time (Tuan, 1979: 390).

— Tuan, Y.-F. (1979). Space and place: humanistic perspective. In: Gale, S. & Olsson, G. (Eds.). Philosophy in geography, 387-427. Dordrecth: D. Reidel Publishing Company.


Islandness is a sense that is absorbed into the bones of islanders through the obstinate and tenacious hold that island communities exert on their native-born as well as on their converts, who experience it as an instantaneous recognition. Islandness thus is an important metacultural phenomenon that helps maintain island communities in spite of daunting economic pressures to abandon them (Conkling, 2007: 200).

— Conkling, P. (2007). On islanders and islandness. The Geographical Review 97(2), 191-201.


Regional development is a complex, global process, consisting of a series of changes aimed at achieving rich personalities within prosperous and democratic society. These changes are observed in the rises of per capita production, educational level and professional and moral qualities of the people, in the people’s political activity, in the use of their standards of living, in widespread cultural life, and in preserving the values of man’s environment. […]

However, not all the changes that occur in a region can be qualified as ‘development’. Only the changes that are accepted by the people concerned as concordant with directional trends can be called ‘development’. By ‘directional trends’ I refer to the conditions under which individual and social aims may be achieved within the scheme of a country’s development policy (Pióro, 1979: 195-196).

— Pióro, Z. (1979). The sociological concept of regional development. In: Kuklinski, A., Kultalahti, O. & Koskiaho, B. Regional dynamics of socioeconomic change, 195-202. Tampere: Finnpublishers.


If property can emancipate and empower, it tends to do so very selectively and unevenly. The net effect of expanding forms of property and expanding enforcement of property rights, as opposed to what property rights can theoretically (and in some cases actually do) produce, is that people become dispossessed and without access to various things enabling their subsistence (Andreasson, 2006: 18).

— Andreasson, S. (2006). Stand and deliver: private property and the politics of Global dispossession. Political Studies 54, 3-22.

San Román

Siempre ha sido difícil en Chile obtener en los establecimientos industriales datos completos i verídicos para el conocimiento público, tan necesarios para el progreso i experiencia de los procedimientos (San Román, 1894: 419-410).

— San Román, F. J. (1894). Minería i metalurjia de Chile. Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Nacional.


La preocupación por la desigualdad social fue ajena al “Consenso de Washington” como lo es para la economía neoclásica. En este terreno las posiciones oscilan entre quienes, siguiendo a Kuznets, afirman la inevitabilidad del crecimiento de la desigualdad en las etapas iniciales del crecimiento económico, hasta que en cierto momento la propia dinámica de éste revierte la tendencia y la desigualdad se reduce, y quienes, de acuerdo con Kaldor, consideran que la desigualdad es positiva para el crecimiento por la mayor propensión al ahorro de los grupos de mayor ingreso, que se traduce en tasas altas de inversión que, en determinado momento, comenzarán a derramar sus beneficios al conjunto de los actores reduciéndose, en consecuencia, la desigualdad. La preocupación por la desigualdad sería entonces producto de consideraciones ajenas a la economía: la conciencia culposa de los mejor dotados de las conveniencias de la vida, el resentimiento de los pobres, la demagogia de políticos populistas, o todo eso junto (Vilas, 2007: 69-70).

— Vilas, C. M. (2007). ¿Hacia atrás o hacia adelante? La revalorización del Estado después del “Consenso de Washington”. Perspectivas 32, 47-81.


In the rightly constituted social group where every member feels his own responsability for his part of the social enterprise which is in hand, the result of the interaction of individuals is that the social group may show itself wiser than any of its individuals. In the mere crowdm on the other hand, the social group may be, and generally is, more stupid than any of its individual members Royce (2012: 175).

— Royce, J. (2012). Provincialism. In: De Young, R. & Princen, T. The localization reader: adapting to the coming downshift, 167-180. Cambridge: The MIT Press.


Many have benefited from globalization, economic restructuring, and the new technologies, but it is also clear that these developments have magnified many existing inequalities in contemporary society, such as between the rich and the poor, between men and women, and between racial and ethnic groups. They have also accentuated other forms of social and political polarization, such as the clash between domestic and immigrant populations over resources, state policies, and civil rights. Cities such as Los Angeles, New York, and London now have income disparities that rank among the highest in the world, and it is no surprise to see new justice movements arising with particular force in these highly globalized city regions (Soja, 2010: 22).

— Soja, E. W. (2010). Seeking spatial justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.