Kay

In short, for the poorer peasants multi- or pluriactivity has been little more than a means for survival leading to a process of depeasantization, deagrarianization, semi-proletarianization or even proletarianization. Hence their increasing exploitation as they have become mainly providers of cheap and flexible labour for capitalism and have to a large extent lost their capacity to produce cheap food. Only for the already well endowed peasant farmers has diversification become a strategy of capital accumulation and improved well-being (Kay, 2008: 935).

— Kay, C. (2008). Reflections on Latin American rural studies in the neoliberal globalization period: a new rurality? Development and Change 39(6), 915-943.

Andreasson

If property can emancipate and empower, it tends to do so very selectively and unevenly. The net effect of expanding forms of property and expanding enforcement of property rights, as opposed to what property rights can theoretically (and in some cases actually do) produce, is that people become dispossessed and without access to various things enabling their subsistence (Andreasson, 2006: 18).

— Andreasson, S. (2006). Stand and deliver: private property and the politics of Global dispossession. Political Studies 54, 3-22.

Vilas

La preocupación por la desigualdad social fue ajena al “Consenso de Washington” como lo es para la economía neoclásica. En este terreno las posiciones oscilan entre quienes, siguiendo a Kuznets, afirman la inevitabilidad del crecimiento de la desigualdad en las etapas iniciales del crecimiento económico, hasta que en cierto momento la propia dinámica de éste revierte la tendencia y la desigualdad se reduce, y quienes, de acuerdo con Kaldor, consideran que la desigualdad es positiva para el crecimiento por la mayor propensión al ahorro de los grupos de mayor ingreso, que se traduce en tasas altas de inversión que, en determinado momento, comenzarán a derramar sus beneficios al conjunto de los actores reduciéndose, en consecuencia, la desigualdad. La preocupación por la desigualdad sería entonces producto de consideraciones ajenas a la economía: la conciencia culposa de los mejor dotados de las conveniencias de la vida, el resentimiento de los pobres, la demagogia de políticos populistas, o todo eso junto (Vilas, 2007: 69-70).

— Vilas, C. M. (2007). ¿Hacia atrás o hacia adelante? La revalorización del Estado después del “Consenso de Washington”. Perspectivas 32, 47-81.

Soja

Many have benefited from globalization, economic restructuring, and the new technologies, but it is also clear that these developments have magnified many existing inequalities in contemporary society, such as between the rich and the poor, between men and women, and between racial and ethnic groups. They have also accentuated other forms of social and political polarization, such as the clash between domestic and immigrant populations over resources, state policies, and civil rights. Cities such as Los Angeles, New York, and London now have income disparities that rank among the highest in the world, and it is no surprise to see new justice movements arising with particular force in these highly globalized city regions (Soja, 2010: 22).

— Soja, E. W. (2010). Seeking spatial justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.