Siempre ha sido difícil en Chile obtener en los establecimientos industriales datos completos i verídicos para el conocimiento público, tan necesarios para el progreso i experiencia de los procedimientos (San Román, 1894: 419-410).
— San Román, F. J. (1894). Minería i metalurjia de Chile. Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Nacional.
In Chile, the combination of weak rural capital and strong landed elites in the democratic period meant policies favoured landed elites in agriculture and fisheries. This was reinforced after the military coup of 1973 and the development of a neo-liberal regime. While landed elites had to share with foreign capital, domestic policies reinforced their strength in rural areas. In Chile, landed elites and foreign capital dominate the industry. This was through a neo-liberalism reinforced by economic globalization. Even after the return to democracy and centre-left coalition governments, neo-liberalism reinforced the power of landed elites and foreign capital (Phyne, 2010: 165).
— Phyne, J. (2010). A comparative political economy of rural capitalism: salmon aquaculture in Norway, Chile and Ireland. Acta Sociologica 53(2), 160-180.
Espacios políticos y prioridades de desarrollo: transformaciones territoriales en un contexto glocal
Departing from an assessment of the pertinence of the concept of territory in the analysis of spatial changes, the notion of space is applied to understand how different actors taking part in several networks and scales affect the articulation of development priorities of a specific scale. Concept of decision is used to comprehend the participation of those actors as a continuous process of choosing social relations to deploy. Discourses are seen as interpretations of the reality elaborated to explain decisions, whose authors pretend to get legitimated by the rest. An approach of political spaces integrates these concepts in a theory of power which understand it as a mechanism to select decisions. In this work these processes are analyzed in regard of salmon aquaculture and forestry in Southern Chile.
It is remarkable that successful strategies are related with actors who use their resources to achieve networks at several scales, whilst those who orient their relations to just one scale will hardly impose their own priorities. Capital is still an important resource in terms of influence, but it is not the only one; in example, access to media also plays a relevant role. From these strategies follows that having access to resources is not enough to network successfully, but they are valuable only if they are used to lead in power relations.
Román, Á. (2013). Espacios políticos y prioridades de desarrollo: transformaciones territoriales en un contexto glocal. Anales de la Sociedad Chilena de Ciencias Geográficas 2012, 252-258.
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¿Son nuevas las ruralidades de Chiloé? Transformaciones territoriales y la “modernización” de los modos de vida rurales
Jonathan Barton, Álvaro Román, Alejandro Salazar & Bernardita McPhee.
The debate on new rurality, particularly in more developed countries, has addressed changes in agricultural production patterns and proceses of diversifcation. While in some areas there has been a shift to agribusiness, in others there has been a movement towards more diversification of activities in rural contexts. These changes have implied transformations in residential typologies (and even rural gentrification), new productive activities (e.g. tourism and energy) and improvements in social, road and telecommunications infrastructures. The dominant argument poses that traditional rurality, based on agriculture, does not explain well the diversity of contemporary rural livelihoods and associated socio-spatial changes. These “new ruralities” mark a paradigm shift in defining rural areas and their potentialities (Kay, 2008; PNUD, 2008). However, there is a counter-argument that rurality was always diverse given their local contexts and historical dimensions of subsistence and exchange. It is likely that interpretations of these changes in different rural contexts are divergent. However it is important to understand contemporary processes and how they are shaping new rural livelihoods that in turn shape rural quality of life and landscape transformations.
Barton, J., Román, Á., Salazar, A. & McPhee, B. (2013). ¿Son nuevas las ruralidades de Chiloé? Transformaciones territoriales y la “modernización” de los modos de vida rurales. Anales de la Sociedad Chilena de Ciencias Geográficas 2012, 197-203.
Download pdf (in Spanish) from Sochigeo.