Distant places are also remote in time, lying either in the remote past or future. In non-Western societies, distant places are located in the mythical past rather than future, but since time tends to be perceived as cyclical remote past and remote future converge. In Western society, a distant place can suggest the idea of a distant past: when explorers seek the source of the Nile or the heart of a continent they appear to be moving back in time (Tuan, 1979: 390).

— Tuan, Y.-F. (1979). Space and place: humanistic perspective. In: Gale, S. & Olsson, G. (Eds.). Philosophy in geography, 387-427. Dordrecth: D. Reidel Publishing Company.


Islandness is a sense that is absorbed into the bones of islanders through the obstinate and tenacious hold that island communities exert on their native-born as well as on their converts, who experience it as an instantaneous recognition. Islandness thus is an important metacultural phenomenon that helps maintain island communities in spite of daunting economic pressures to abandon them (Conkling, 2007: 200).

— Conkling, P. (2007). On islanders and islandness. The Geographical Review 97(2), 191-201.